Who are they?

The Pasi are engaged in settled cultivation in Uttar Pradesh but work in a variety of jobs in other states. This people group can be found in 52 districts of the country as a whole, primarily in Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Orissa, Maharashtra, Haryana and Punjab. They are also known as Tarmali in Uttar Pradesh, and as Chomar and Khajuria in Orissa.


There are many versions regarding their origin. According to one legend, the Brahmin saint Parshuram was practicing austerities in the jungle when he heard the cries of many cows mooing in fear. He ran to them and found a group of men trying to slaughter the cows. He tried to intervene but was overpowered by the man and his friends. Parshuram shaped five men out of kusha grass and infused them to life through the drops of his perspiration to help him. Therefore the name, derived from pasina, Hindi for sweat.

The colonial anthropologists Rose (1919) and Ibbetson (1916) claim that the name Pasi is derived from the Hindi word pasa, meaning ‘noose’, with the help of which they climb the tall toddy palm tree. G.S. Ghurye, an Indian sociologist, also asserts that Pasi means “a user of noose and is the name of an aboriginal caste living by catching wild birds, small game and tapping palms.” In fact, even today, the Byadha subgroup of Bihar still traps birds and animals.

During the British rule the Pasi were known as a criminal tribe who were thieves, looters and marauders. They were skilled in the use of bow and arrow and stick. There is an interesting story of how the Pasi of Bihar came to the Punjab region. When Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth and last Sikh Guru, was returning to Punjab from Patna, the capital of Bihar, he was told about a community of bandits called the Pasi. The Guru recruited them into his army and brought them to Punjab where as declared criminals, their attendance was required at the police station nearest to the place of residence.

In 1952, when the colonial Criminal Tribes Act, 1924, was repealed the parliament, the Pasi were declared a Scheduled Caste. This granted them the benefit of reserved quotas in government jobs, admissions to medical and engineering colleges, and other such schemes.

What Are Their Lives Like?

The Pasi pursue various occupations. In Uttar Pradesh they are engaged in settled cultivation; in Bihar, West Bengal and Orissa in toddy-tapping; and in Punjab they rear pigs. In Delhi they make leaf plates or work as laborers or in cloth mills and factories. The Pasi from Madhya Pradesh have left tapping dates and other palm to work as daily wage labor or have a trade. Those in Maharashtra, who are mostly landless, are engaged as skilled and unskilled laborers in mines or employed by small businesses, while a few are proficient in the art of carving, engraving on stones, weaving and pottery and creating gold jewelry.

The reservation policy of the government has also provided a number of government jobs for them at all levels. Petty trading, teaching, daily-wage labour, rickshaw pulling, animal husbandry, making and mending grindstones are some other common vocations.

The Pasi use both traditional and modern medicine. Their literacy rates are generally quite low, but are becoming increasingly aware of the need for formal education. They practice family planning, except in the poorer states of West Bengal and Bihar.

Their diet consists of mutton, chicken, fish and pork but they abstain from beef, being considered sacred. Wheat, rice and maize are their staple cereals. Lentils, beans and vegetables are also eaten. Fruit and milk are luxuries and not every family can afford them. Alcohol is consumed by the men who also use tobacco in various forms.

The Pasi usually marry only among their caste, although in states like Uttar Pradesh, where the Pasi have seven subgroups such as Raj Pasi and Mangta Pasi, marriage is even limited by subgroup. In the Delhi area the Pasi also have seven subgroups, but have, over the last two to three decades, begun to intermarry. Clan exogamy is, however, observed among all Pasi and marriages are settled by negotiation. Monogamy is the norm but polygamy is allowed in case of barrenness. In Bihar, sometimes a bridegroom is captured and marriage is held in a temple. Sindur (vermilion), bangles, bindi (dot in the middle of the forehead), nose stud and toe-rings are the symbols of marriage, which have to be given up if a woman becomes a widow. Dowry is given in both cash and goods, including household articles.

Divorce is permissible among the Pasi in a few states on grounds of adultery and cruelty, but is not allowed among those of Haryana. Widow or divorcee remarriage is permitted but is not very common. Such remarriages are solemnised at a simple ceremony called variously as bethana (making to sit) and gharona (bringing to the house).

Both nuclear and joint family types are common today. Property is divided equally among the sons and the eldest son succeeds as the head of the family. Although, daughters have the right to their share in paternal property according to Pasi law, they do not claim it in order to maintain cordial relations with their brothers after their parents’ death. Married women avoid male elders of the family, especially the husband’s father and elder brother. Pasi women have specified roles in household chores, social functions, rituals and religious activities. They also contribute to the family income by activities such as selling toddy in the local markets or weaving small baskets from palm leaves. Some women in cities earn a living by cleaning utensils and work as domestic helpers. In all aspects of family and social life they hold a secondary status to men. Very few women serve in government and private offices.

The Pasi have caste councils which hold varying degrees of power in different states. In Uttar Pradesh the council has absolute authority to settle divorce and judge social offences. In Delhi the council has lost its importance and such cases are decided by the courts. Recently, a Pasi Kalyan Sabhas (Welfare Council) has been formed for state and national level. The primary objective of these councils is to improve the economic strength and welfare of the community. Political leadership has also emerged at the regional and national level.

What Are Their Beliefs?

The Pasi are Hindu and worship all Hindu gods and goddesses. Families worship the deity of their choice. Each god has specific spheres of influence and are entreated upon or appeased according to the individual’s predicament. The Pasi of Haryana believes very strongly in Shakti (power) worship and revere Kali (goddess of destruction) and Durga (warrior goddess). Saint Parshuram is the community deity of the Maharashtra Pasi.

The Pasi believe in demons and go to witchdoctors for exorcism. In Orissa, a witchdoctor from other communities, called guniya, is consulted to be rid of evil spirits and cure diseases. Ancestor worship is prevalent among the Pasi. Brahmin priests are paid to conduct all birth, marriage and death rites.

What Are Their Needs?

Literacy and access to medical help and basic amenities like drinking water and sanitation. They still suffer the effects of the caste system which has left them despised and rejected. In 1949, the Pasi met at a regional level near Lucknow, the capital of Uttar Pradesh, and declared that they had descended from the high Rajput caste and were therefore entitled to wear the ‘sacred thread’ and conducted thread-wearing ceremonies. This only led to their exclusion. Subsequently, many denounced the sacred thread and returned to the dictates of the other castes.

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54 Comments on "Pasi"

14 hours 15 minutes ago
1 day 13 hours ago
proud to be passi who had fought for freedom of country
1 day 13 hours ago
2 days 19 hours ago
The Pasi are one of the untouchable communities . who are now classified as a Scheduled Caste under modern India's system of positive discrimination. As untouchables, they were traditionally considered outside the Hindu ritual ranking system of castes
They are found in the northern Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh also.
2 days 20 hours ago
2 days 19 hours ago
my mobile phone no. 08527902259 Delhi
and i am searching bride as well as groom for my younger sister & brother
Swati Rawat
8 days 16 hours ago
feeling proud to be a Pasi Girl.Thanks for giving me these kind of bride knowledge about great History of Pasi Community. Lots of Thanks to U.
Arun Choudhary
19 days 7 hours ago
Good to know the history of our community. One cannot change the past but the present and so the future. We must analyze the current situation of our social, economical and political conditions respectively. I believe that we can develop only through education. We must look after family planning. We must cooperate our people in every sphere of life such as education, job, business, politics etc. We must back our people and boost up their confidence so that they do whatever they wants to.
1 month 16 hours ago
it is all important to know about our caste history, in that period of transition.there are many interpretation which are new for me like origin and history of our caste. we have don't have more prosperous history but it is time to built new history by maximum participation, presentation,leadership in and outside of the country. it is all come into practical existence when we study and become more logical,rationale,be together in all aspects of society i.e like social,political,economic,educational etc
s.n choudhary
3 months 11 hours ago
pasi history is a warriorcaste many kings in U.P HAD FOUGHT and some forts still exist.In.bihar we aredeveloping at a fast rate and today there are thousands of engineers and doctors and some are holding top posts as managing director and director of utility and medical colleges. i had also hold the post of be proud and try to rise day by day.thnq.
sachin Paswan
3 months 6 days ago

Paswan (pasi) are indian civilian and belong to majestic ancestors, Its very clear with live evidence in modern history they are primitive caste.
they lived in Faizabad, Barababki, Bahraich, Lucknow, Raibareli, Sita, Hardoi, Lakhimpurkhiri, Shahjahapur, Varanasi, Gazipur, Allahabad, Mirjapur, Kanpur, Jaunpur, Gorakhpur, Pratapgargh, Sultanpur, Hardoi, Deoria Fatehpur, Azamgargh, Unnao like Dalera, Kajand, Nut, Mahre, Chamar and Pasi.
In validation in world famous book Gazetteer of the province of Oudh.VOL. 2,-- till H to N, year 1877, Imperial Gazetteer of india vol. ii 1908, District Gazetteer Khiri-1979, Unnao District Gazetteer, UP District Gazetteer Volume 10101053.
It wrote on page 4 in Gazetteer Rampur 1974 k, Pasi are posterity of Ahar, Ahir, Barmar, Beria, Bhuihar, Chauhan(except rajput who is not rajput).
Dalera, Khaujar, Nut, They cleaned forest and maked useful for huamn.
In 1996, famous english scholor " Sri R.B Rasel " wrote in his book, "The tribes and casr of the central princes of the India " Pasi is a dravid cast.
they ruled large part of awadh, after some time rajput they had destroyed to their dominate and they establish to rajput dominate.
Mr.Rasel Belived, "Pasi are brave kaum" all details of Rasel in book "Tribes and cast of the north western privinces and awadh". wriiten by Villion Crook.
Mr.Villion Crook wrote they were Price or King and praised to their social, political, and economical power. they ruled kiya in District Hardoi and Unnao Khiri Lucknow.
Their fort were in Ramkot Near (Bagarmau Kasba). last pasi king of Ramgargh Maharaja Santhar (King of SatanKot) did not present any brush aside along with this they had finished relatioship with king jaychand. After some time King Jaychand and alha udal combined force they had finished to satan state.
In validation, in present available is "Satan Kot k kile"
U.P Gov reserved land of satan kot kila
U.P Govt & Central Govt has assinged three acre land for Maharaj Satan Pasi.
Sandila tehsil is located just near of satan kote, earlier it was state which has been established by king Sandila and his another brother he has established to malihabad.
King Sandila state was arround Sai River to Gomati River, last of 18th Centurary king of delhi sultan Nasiruddin shah, he had attacked on Sandila and in this war sadila was failer.
Maharaja Bijli pasi he was one of the greatest king of biggest part of Awadh.
famous english connoisseur Sir C Iliyat and R.V Rasel agreed with evidencce encient ruin, fortress, fort, primitive coin and primitive untainsils, vestige after study to another thing Its clear that distric lakhimpur and arround it on all state till 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th pasies they had established so many state, In 12th & 13th centuary,Pasi king they have lost big loss and they have burn to pasi sankriti and historical sharohar.
It has been describe on page of 20 in Gazeteer in year of 1979.
"" may not be a fo far fetched theory to identify this period with the times in which pasis and other aboriginal tribes are said to have held this part of the country.No sign of pasi dominion have however survived which need not suprised us their possession have long been held by the descendents of rajput and muslim invaders.""
North east of dharhara lakhimpur khiri mukhyalaya. pasi strenght is higher in dhaurhara.
Its was fort of vintae pasi king,In presesnt you will get fort and so many thing which is saved by gov.
It wrote in Distric Gazeteer khiri (prakahshan1979 on page 258 that dharhaura was capital f pasi.
Sachin Paswan
Email:[email protected]:+91981097409
Researcher On great Pasi(caste)
ajay kumar ara
5 months 4 days ago
i am very proud feel known our pasi cast.
pradeep kumar
6 months 18 days ago
I also belong to passi (saroj). Nice to know the history of our people. Pradeep.
Anand passi
6 months 26 days ago
I am very proud feel of our history of passi cast
brijesh saroj
7 months 26 days ago
Iproud passi samaj 9891210134passi samaj contactme
9 months 25 days ago
I' m feeling very happy to read this article and proud to our origin and rich history but we are facing some serious problem like illiteracy and unemployment so our responsibility to make a awareness about education and spread unity
Indian Culture by States: Madhya Pradesh Culture - People Groups of India
1 year 2 months ago
[…] which includes Bharbhunja, Bhat, Kachchi, Kalwar, Khatik, Kol, Kori, Kurmi, Lodha, Mallah, Pasi. Madhya Pradesh is known for its tribal region as this constitutes to 20% of the population of […]
1 year 3 months ago
rawat , varma , bharti etc.
shomnath bharti
1 year 3 months ago
thanks for these knowledge can u provide where the pasi community are involved in historical activities.
sachin Paswan
3 months 6 days ago
Yes for better information kindly visit
1 year 4 months ago
passi jati khya se suru hue or kon kon se state me ha
1 year 4 months ago