Dalit life is excruciatingly painful, charred by experiences.  Experiences that did not manage to find room in literary creations.  We have grown up in a social order that is extremely cruel and inhuman.  Omprakash Valmiki

Who are they?

The Balmiki are one of the largest socially stigmatized Dalit groups numbering nearly 1.5 million in Uttar Pradesh alone and constitute about 16 % of India’s population.  They occupy the lowliest position of the caste system.  During the colonial period they were brought from villages to remove human excrement and clean the cities.  They became an urban community.  In time, with the introduction of septic latrines, the practice of carrying buckets of excrement on their heads is gone but they still work to clear blockages in sewers where they are half submerged in filth.  The stigma remains as they are still identified with the work they perform and considered untouchable and treated as such.  They have always been marginalized and treated as outcasts socially, economically and culturally.   Sweepers are now referred to as safai karamcharis or sanitary workers.

The Balmiki make up a cluster of communities – a few of whom are the Bhangi, Mehtar, Chuhra, Lal Beghi and Halalkhor.  They have united to form one community and claim a common origin from the saint Balmiki.  Balmiki is thought to be the first Sanskrit poet and author of the holy Hindu epic Ramayana and was brought up by a sweeper woman although he was a Brahmin (highest Hindu caste) mendicant’s son.

They were given names contrary to their position to give them dignity despite their lowly status – like Chuhra meaning beautiful and Mehtar, a Persian word meaning prince or leader.  However Bhangi, the most widely used name is a Hindi word meaning one addicted to drinking bhang (a drink made from marijuana leaves).


These communities can be found throughout the states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, Gujarat, and the union territory of Chandigarh where they are locally known by various names mentioned above.

What Are Their Lives Like?

Balmiki’s are employed as sweepers in municipalities, hospitals and government offices.  Some Balmiki are engaged in agricultural or contract labour.  Pig rearing, bamboo basketry, and poultry farming are some ancillary occupations.  Some Balmiki, such as the Mehtar men of Bihar, play drums at weddings and festivals, while women are midwives.

Post-independence, the Indian government’s affirmative action policies have seen an increase of Balmiki emerge as political leaders in regional and national levels.   A prominent example is Buta Singh, from the Bhangi community in Punjab, who was an MP in parliament from the early sixties and became a Union Minister of Home Affairs.  The Balmiki who work at municipalities have formed unions to help them be treated fairly.  The Balmiki have also formed an association for their caste at a national level called the All-India Safai Mazdoor Congress with a head office in Bombay and branches in other states.  The objectives of the association are to strengthen the economic, social, educational and political status of all sweeper castes in India and to remove all social discrimination.

Literacy rates among the Balmiki are low because they cannot afford it, though they view education favorably.  In recent years, especially in urban areas like Delhi, girls are educated.  They visit doctors and use traditional medicines as well.  They have begun to value and practice family planning.  They have started to utilize the government’s developmental programs provided for Scheduled Castes.

A major problem among the Balmiki is debt.  A common saying of the Bhangi is that they are born in debt, live in debt and will die in debt.  Social customs that require money for dowries, marriages, death rites, help for extended family and poor health all contribute to debt.  Money is borrowed from a money lender at very high interest rates.  Gambling is seen as a way out of poverty that leads them further in debt.

The Balmiki have a diet that includes wheat, millet and rice.  Pork is eaten by all and beef is eaten by Gujarati Balmiki’s.  Men drink homemade alcohol and women are allowed to drink at ritual celebrations only. The Balmiki accept water and food from almost all other communities but other communities make it a point not to reciprocate.  Wherever they are, the Balmiki live in squalid, overcrowded segregated areas.


The Balmiki practice group endogamy and clan or lineage exogamy.  Vermilion in the hair parting, a dot on the forehead and toe-rings are symbols for married women. They believe in monogamy and prefer adult marriages. The custom of dowry, given as cash and goods is given by the bride’s family.  Marriages are arranged by parents and elders.  Divorce is permissible.  Women are slightly better off in comparison to other lower caste women and participate actively in religious and social activities.  Both men and women work as sweepers.

What Are Their Beliefs?

Despite the abject position they hold in the Hindu caste system and in society, the Balmikis remain Hindu.  The Balmiki worship village and regional deities along with other Hindus.  As they are considered untouchable and not permitted entry to Hindu temples, they worship at Balmiki temples.  There are some localities that allow them entry.  Shiva and saint Balmiki are revered and Balmiki Jayanti (Balmiki’s birthday) is celebrated with a procession.  They worship a mother goddess called Masani who is thought to protect children from liver failure (caused by malaria and intestinal infection).  Animal sacrifices are offered to appease Masani and Kali (goddess who wears a necklace of human skulls).  Some others are Maha Mai (great mother) and Sitala (the smallpox goddess, who is believed to have cured the disease).  The Balmiki also believe in spirits and call on a Bhagat (a person who communicates with spirits) to pacify them.  The Bhagat identifies the problem and recommends a remedy which usually involves worship, a sacrifice and an offering to be made to the spirit.  Witchcraft and evil eye have other solutions.  Vows are also made at tombs of Muslim saints.

The Balmiki have tried for centuries to free themselves from the bondage to the degrading caste system by converting to Islam and Christianity.  In the 1880s and 1890s there were large scale conversions in western Uttar Pradesh which resulted in a marginal improvement in basic dignity and some economic gain.  It did not take long before they converted back to Hinduism on being offered inducements.  For example, the Mehtar of Karnataka embraced Islam to escape the stigma associated with their caste and returned to Hinduism in order to receive the benefits extended to Scheduled Castes in newly independent India’s constitution.  In the early 1900’s a Hindu organization called Arya Samaj was active in reconverting Balmiki’s to Hinduism.

What Are Their Needs?

The Balmiki need to be given dignity and freed from centuries of discrimination.  Poverty and illiteracy has to be eradicated.  Material needs have to be balanced with emotional and spiritual growth.

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144 Comments on "Balmiki"

14 days 11 hours ago
this page is just deteriorating the image of the community and u all are just helping it do u know ur true history.
go to wikipedia page
Balmiki or Valmiki (Nepali: बाल्मिकी, Vālmīki) is a indegenous people of india sect of Hinduism centered on the sage Valmiki. The community is found through out the country and it is in history that this class used to be the class of warriors there plight is because they fought to save hindu religion during mughal era where other communities so called upper castes have denied themselves to be hindu at that time from the fear of mughals. They told as the mughals are from outside they too were from outside land and indruded the country before. They Worship Valmiki as their ancestor and God.
Valmiki composes the Ramayana
Valmikis believe that he was an Avatar of God, and they consider his works, the Ramayana and the Yoga Vasistha, as their holy scripture. In the state of Andhra Pradesh, Valmikis are referred to as Boyas. The titles of the Boyas are said to be Naidu or Nayudu, Naik, Dora, Dorabidda (children of chieftains), and Valmiki.
sukhbir mehrolia
16 days 13 hours ago
hi guys im also a valmiki...i've done in 1995. i really like this discussion we should unite and support are caste people...agar sab log apni caste ko proudly btate hai to hum kyu nhi. proud to be a valmiki. aap log bhi to dusro ko ache kaamo ke liye motivate kro sirf safai hi nhi logo ki soch ko badlo...if we support ourself maybe we can also create and change...kuch aisa kro jis se badlav aye.
Sunil Tarachand Kharaliya
2 days 12 minutes ago
hiii bro ur right even i m also belong from valmiki caste. My name is sunil kharaliya
10 days 16 hours ago
hi sukhbir felt great after reading your above lines given by you great !!!!!yes our society need to change their thinking very true, my message is for all the society peoples who have still doing differentiate in castes guys today era will be change so why not we change our mentality , first of all we have to become a human respect the values of Human being ,Cast kuch nahi hoti ha Insan apne ko pehale ek acha insan toh bana le ,phir toh differentiate kar payega.plz soch ko badlo Pura India Badal jaega .
I am Pujabi girl going to marry with balmiki person can u believe
Sunil Tarachand Kharaliya
2 days 11 minutes ago
hiii! mansi ur great hands of to u even i m alos going to marry with punjabi girl
Ashok Bhuranday
18 days 17 hours ago
First of all we have to educate. For our dignity please drop dirty works(sweepers).There are lots of opportunities. As we are considered untouchable and we could't enter to Hindu's temples please don't worship there, We have to worship at Balmiki temples.We make up a cluster of communities – a few of whom are the Bhangi, Mehtar, Chuhra, Lal Beghi and Halalkhor. We should make one community and worship a common origin the saint Balmiki. Some People always said balmiki belongs to other caste please....... Can u prove it .Otherwise stop saying that.All community should worship Lord Balmiki. Please read about Mahatma Darshan Ratan Ravana. He is Our real well wiser. Jai BALMIKI , JAI BHEEM......................
Sunil taank
29 days 16 hours ago
I am sunil taank belongs to valmiki
bhai logo mere hisab se sabse pahle valmiki caste ko in adhvishvas ki duniya se bhar nikla hoga kyoki in mai ajj bhi andhvisvas jayada hai
bhut sare to padai hi nahi karte inko education ke liye protsahit karna hoga or ek commitee honi chahiye jo valmiki caste ko padai ke liye suvidyaon ki jankari de or wo bhi pad sake gaon mai jakar unhe shiksha ka mahtavbatayi or agge badne ke liye parerit kare sharo mai to jagriti aa rahi hai gaon mai nahi waha ajj bhi log sadiyon purani zindagi jee rahe hai
jai valmiki
har har valmiki
1 month 9 days ago
Hello..everyone,I am yash from Delhi. I am also a valmiki .I feels very bad for our our country we treated like disease people.we have fends from all communities like punjab Hindu n all they pretend they are very good with us bt actually they are not.i had a gf who was punjabi n we both got married come arrange by parents.after 1 year of our marriage my father in law want that I suppose to divorce my wife because his relatives disagree with this marriage. And after some time he file a complaint against me that I had the dowry he don't wanted to marry his daughter with me cz m a valmiki. My wife come back to me n she took the complaint back n we both were again living happy. .n after some time my wife got pregnant n it was her 9 month ..we checked all d routine test n all she was absulutely fine n baby was also fit..unfortunately she had a cardiac arrest in d hospital n she her parents sent me to jail for d charge 304b n 498a.n he is saying that I need 1cr otherwise I ll nt spare you.he is a punjabi n he has links now after 7 month I cm bck from the jail on guys plz tell me what are we.the valmiki...we are nothing cz all casts has links bt for our nobody survive us.we r very down by these things
10 days 16 hours ago
hi yash mansi this side can you you please tell me what to do same conditions I am facing right now yash sir please help me out plz I really thank full to you , if you help me out realyy I yhink you are next to god for me.
21 days 8 hours ago
Yes boss, I am very sad to know about your plight and the manipulation of your father in law to trap you. Contact me at 9818506451
1 month 11 days ago
Har har valmiki,
1 month 11 days ago
Valmiki smaj k logo ko Hindu dharm ko shod Dena chahiye .
Apna alag dharm bnana chahiye...
1 month 13 days ago
thx for a valuable information...meine comments pade,i want to just say ki agar government group c aur d ki recruitment kar de wo bhi sarkari to lots of problem will be autmatically solved..but they didnt do dis.instead of dis ,wo private karte ja rahe hai,,,,,
Chatoor Partap (Gurpartap Singh)
1 month 15 days ago
One God -All his children. You look like god,think like god,feel like god,you are not what other tells you.You are God's children.All equal .Please visit, I write about Balmiki.
jugraj singh
1 month 15 days ago
sikh dharam mein valmiki smaj ko mazhabi sikhon ke naam se jana jata hai....punjab mein valmiki mazhabi sikhon ki ginti 50 lakh ke pas hai......
Chatoor Partap (Gurpartap Singh)
1 month 15 days ago
In sikh dharam,Balmikis are called Rangreta-Guru ka beta.
1 month 26 days ago
2 months 7 days ago
hello every body here..
I just read the blog above here and felt a bit proud . But a huge dissapointment.
Dissapointment is here coz of that our people are think themselves as a lower part of the society as mentioned in blog .
Do you know what is the biggest issue nd lack of our community have is the unity .
Hum logo me ekta naam ki chiz hi nai h ...
Aap dusri castes ko deko gujar ye log 300 400saal pahele kya the or aj ye apni ekta ya unity k wajah se kaha pahoch gae h
or woh b without any education .
Aur agar hum log
admit nahi karte that who we are?
Then education
or mje lgta k , jesa 1 dost ne comment kia k hm sabhi ko kisi 1 platform pe meelna chahie to discuss all the issues
or hume apni community ko education ke lie aware karna chaie
sumit kajani from delhi
malkeet ram
3 months 2 days ago
Hello I am malkeet ram from Punjab belonging to balmiki kasti Join the this
3 months 27 days ago
this are the cheap tactics of just making time pass and nothing else because the amount really expended on he blog can be given for the welfare of any needy balmiki but it is the only caste system that resrict them to do so,there is no political influence for the balmiki's and in the deficiency of this,the sorrow of the balmiki's will never make the world to hear there problem's which are never tried to be heard by any political is just waist of time.who says their is no literacy in the balmiki cast,their are enn number of balmiki youth who are highly qualified but nobody support's them,Thank you for the sympathy.
4 months 3 days ago
May someone tell me Are valmikis in bihar or not. One of my friend is from biharsariff but he told to his GF that he is rajput but I know his gotra is valmiki as he told me. I think its incorrect because i checked many websites and i hv seen that no valmiki is realated to rajput. If someone have any idea please tell me.
Sunil Tarachand Kharaliya
2 days 7 minutes ago
hiiin actually the rajput in valmiki it is not at all any caste it is not right. valmiki means churha caste not cum in rajput ohk!
Ashish shilelan
4 months 11 days ago
I really like the article. but i I have few question. Do we all rally respect our cast. if yes then why dont we accept in a community that we belong from valmiki cast. I saw many people writte gujar, rajput, jaat etc. behind their vehicle but i hardly found valmiki on the vehilce. Why??????
We afraid to discolse our cast in front of the society or people????
It clearly shows that some were we feel that our cast is small. As comapre to other cast and if our cast is samll in our eye and make us weak.Till the time we can't bring our cast and other cast on the same page. Sharam chhodo aur gurve se kaho. Jai valmiki. Plzzz sab log apne vehicle ke piche mention karo aur khul k kaho that yes i am valmiki and i proud to be a valmiki.
Piyush Wagh
4 months 15 days ago
Hello sir
I m impressed from your survey. I m from amravati district in Maharashtra, want to work for the people from backward class in my district under my NGO JHEP MULTIPURPOSE FOUNDATION. Please guide me for that.
Yashpal Kazania
5 months 2 days ago
Hello everyone
Yashpal Kazania
5 months 2 days ago
We should one platform for meeting all educated brother n sisters for unit.
dinesh kumar
17 days 22 hours ago
dear yashpal kazania ji I m agree with you now a days there is a big problem to educated brothers n sister to married in my cast I think it is possible to connect each other on emails to solve this problem
1 month 23 days ago
Hi bro I am here to join you. As I am also balmiki. We need to stand firm and make our community stand in front of the others.
saurav balmiki
5 months 7 days ago
Hello everyone i love dis survey its jst amazing!!! I also belong to balmiki community !!! I am studying journalisim and media studies, i hope one day i,ll do sumthng better 4 my communiy !!!!
Aniket Sheryar
5 months 14 days ago
I'm Aniket Sheryar from meerut I have done I totally impressed ; Sir I also belong this so I wanna join u plzz